In a large saucepan or stockpot, combine the black and tree ear mushrooms, tiger lily buds, and chili peppers with the stock or water. Bring to a boil.
Remove from the heat and steep for 30 minutes. Remove 2 black and 4 tree ear mushrooms, cut into 1/4-inch slices, and reserve.
Reheat the stock until almost boiling. Divide the chicken, bamboo, carrots, tofu, and scallions among 4 bowls. Pour the hot broth into the bowls and garnish with the reserved mushrooms, cilantro leaves, and lime, and serve.