Heat grill over medium-high heat. In a small skillet over medium heat, toast peanuts, stirring occasionally, until fragrant and lightly browned, 2 to 3 minutes. Remove from heat. Let cool, then coarsely chop; set aside.
Make marinade: Process ginger, lime zest, jalapeno, 2 tablespoons chopped shallot, and 2 teaspoons sugar in a food processor to form a coarse paste, about 1 minute. Add 1 tablespoon fish sauce and 1 teaspoon oil; pulse to combine. Place steak on a large plate, and coat both sides with marinade.
Make dressing: In a small bowl, combine lime juice with the remaining tablespoon fish sauce, 1/2 teaspoon sugar, and 2 tablespoons shallot. Slowly add the remaining 2 tablespoons oil, whisking constantly until emulsified.
Prepare an ice bath; set aside. Bring a medium pot of water to a boil, and cook green beans until crisp-tender and bright green, about 2 minutes. Using a slotted spoon, quickly plunge beans into ice bath to stop the cooking.When cool, remove from ice bath, and set aside.
Grill steak 6 minutes on first side. Turn steak, and continue cooking 4 minutes more for medium-rare. Transfer to a cutting board to rest at least 5 minutes.
Arrange green beans, cabbages, and carrot slices around perimeter of a large serving platter. Drizzle dressing over vegetables. Thinly slice steak on the bias, and fan out slices in middle of platter. Sprinkle with peanuts, and scatter scallions on top of steak. Serve immediately.