Preheat oven to 400 degrees.
Combine breadcrumbs, oil, chives, lemon zest, garlic, and cheese. Season with 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon pepper.
Cut off the top quarter of the artichokes lengthwise, and remove the chokes.
Season artichokes with 1/2 teaspoon salt. Divide the bread mixture among the four artichoke halves, packing it into the cavities.
Place artichokes in a pan just large enough to hold them. Add about 1/2 inch of water, and cover tightly with foil.
Bake until the artichokes are tender and the breadcrumbs are golden brown, about an hour.
You may end up with a little water in the bottom of the pan at the end of cooking -- that's OK. Simply use a pair of tongs or slotted spoon to lift the artichokes out and tip forward slightly to release any water.