Use a paring knife to trim away all of the artichokes' fibrous leaves and chokes so only the hearts remain. Slice the hearts thinly crosswise. In a small bowl, toss artichoke hearts with lemon juice.
Preheat oven to 450 degrees. Lightly oil a baking sheet. Stretch dough on prepared sheet and brush with oil, making sure to coat edges well. Scatter spoonfuls of ricotta over dough. Top with tomatoes, artichokes, olives, and 3/4 of the Pecorino. Season with salt and pepper.
Bake pizza until browned, 20 to 25 minutes. Top cooked pizza with basil and reserved Pecorino.